English as a Foreign Language Interest Section, TESOL

June 15, 2010

TESOL Quarterly Articles (2006-Present)

Filed under: TESOL 2011 Convention Proposal Review — tesolefl @ 12:10 am

Volume 44, Number 1, March 2010

Going Beyond Patterns: Involving Cognitive Analysis in the Learning of Collocations
Author: Liu, Dilin
Since the late 1980s, collocations have received increasing attention in applied linguistics, especially language teaching, as is evidenced by the many publications on the topic. These works fall roughly into two lines of research (a) those focusing on the identification and use of collocations (Benson, 1989; Hunston, 2002; Hunston & Francis, 2000; Smadja & McKeown, 1991; Wouden, 1997) and (b) those focusing on the learning and teaching of collocations, including the development of reference books and textbooks (Bahns & Eldaw, 1993; Benson, Benson, & Ilson, 1997; Crowther, Dignen, & Lea, 2002; Hill & Lewis, 2002; Keshavarz & Salimi, 2007; Lewis, 2000, 2002; McCarthy & O’Dell, 2005; Nesselhauf, 2003; O’Dell & McCarthy, 2008; Sun & Wang, 2003; Webb & Kagimoto, 2009). Although these publications have greatly enhanced our understanding of collocations and their role learning and teaching, a close look at them indicates a lack of critical examination of the definition and the nature of collocations and the way collocations are taught. This article aims to address the issue through (a) a close critical examination of the collocations in existing teaching or reference materials and the typical way they are taught and (b) a corpus-based analysis of some representative collocations. On the basis of the examination and analysis, the article argues for a more effective pedagogical approach to collocations that involves corpus-based cognitive analysis of collocations.

Do ESL Essay Raters’ Evaluation Criteria Change With Experience? A Mixed-Methods, Cross-Sectional Study
Author: Barkaoui, Khaled
This study adopted a mixed-methods cross-sectional approach to identify similarities and differences in the English as a second language (ESL) essay holistic scores and evaluation criteria of raters with different levels of experience. Each of 31 experienced and 29 novice raters rated a sample of ESL essays holistically and analytically and provided written explanations for each holistic score they assigned. Score and qualitative data analyses were conducted to identify the criteria that the raters employed to rate the essays holistically. The findings indicated that both groups gave more importance to the communicative quality of the essays than to other aspects of writing. However, the novice raters tended to be more lenient and to give more importance to argumentation than the experienced raters did. The experienced raters tended to be more severe, to give more importance to linguistic accuracy, and to refer to evaluation criteria other than those listed in the rating scale more frequently than the novices did. The article concludes with a call for longitudinal research to investigate to what extent, how, and why rater evaluation criteria change over time and across contexts.

Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka
Author: Hayes, David
This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher’s own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and aspects of his working life in areas fought over by government and LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) forces. The teacher’s narrative is contextualized within the history of the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamils and aims to shed some light on how an individual finds the motivation to continue to work in a situation of extreme personal danger and, further, how he positions himself within his community as a teacher of a foreign language which might be seen as an irrelevance to students in his context. Though the limitations of case studies are recognized, as well as the particularly distressing conditions of life and work for this teacher, the article nevertheless contends that his story will contribute to extending the knowledge base of TESOL as a discipline by providing space for a voice from a peripheral community to be heard.

Effects of Dynamic Corrective Feedback on ESL Writing Accuracy
Authors: Hartshorn, K. James; Evans, Norman W.; Merrill, Paul F.; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Strong-Krause, Diane; Anderson, Neil J.
Though recent research has shown that written corrective feedback (WCF) may improve aspects of writing accuracy in some English as a second language (ESL) contexts, many teachers continue to be confused about the practical steps they should utilize to help their students improve their writing. Moreover, some have raised concerns as to whether commonly used approaches to ESL writing pedagogy and grammar instruction are effective in helping students improve their linguistic accuracy. This article describes an instructional strategy we developed for improving students’ accuracy based on insights gleaned from practice, research, and theory. We refer to this instructional methodology as dynamic WCF. The article also discusses a test of the methodology’s efficacy that compared the performance of two groups of students, one using a conventional process approach to writing instruction and the other using the dynamic WCF approach. Test results demonstrated that although rhetorical competence, writing fluency, and writing complexity were largely unaffected by the dynamic WCF pedagogy, significant improvement was observed for writing accuracy.

Using the DASH Method to Measure Reading Comprehension
Authors: Shieh, Wenyuh; Freiermuth, Mark R.

Vocabulary knowledge has been recognized by researchers as a critical component of reading comprehension, not only as a means to facilitate first language acquisition but also as an integral element in the learning of English as a second or foreign language. To reduce the effect of insufficient vocabulary knowledge during reading, a compensatory strategy for many English as a foreign language (EFL) readers is dictionary consultation. Several studies have investigated the effect of dictionary use on second language reading comprehension; however, findings have been inconclusive. It is our contention that the reasons behind the inconsistent research findings stem from different manipulations of the related variables influencing reading comprehension. To help moderate the effect of these variables, an innovative experimental approach, the duplicated answer sheets (DASH) method, was designed with the purpose of investigating the influence of dictionary use on text comprehension using a timed-interval assessment. With this in mind, the DASH was given to five proficiency-leveled groups of EFL students at a university in Taiwan. The groups were further divided into participants who used dictionaries and those who did not. The results indicate that dictionary use has little effect during the early stages of testing. However, during subsequent test intervals dictionary use seems to benefit learners’ text comprehension, regardless of proficiency level. This research provides strong evidence that second language learners, given enough time, will benefit from using dictionaries as a tool to assist in text comprehension.

Group Processes and EFL Learners’ Motivation: A Study of Group Dynamics in EFL Classrooms
Author: Chang, Lilian Ya-Hui
motivation. The uniqueness of this research lies in shifting the focus from an analysis of the individual’s experience being seen as apart from the group to considering the individual’s experience in relation to the social interactions within the group. Questionnaires were administered to 152 Taiwanese university students from the English Department of a university in Taiwan. The results from the questionnaires show that there was a slight to moderate correlation between group processes (group cohesiveness and group norms) and students’ level of motivation (self-efficacy and autonomy). A dozen students who participated in this study were asked to share more information in semi-structured in-depth interviews. During those interviews, several students commented that their learner class group was indeed important to their learning, as associating with more motivated classmates and classmates with whom they get along does positively influence their own motivation. On the other hand, being in a class group of stolid learners who are unresponsive and show little interest or concern for each other could de-motivate an otherwise motivated learner.

Volume 43, Number 4, December 2009

The Cultures of English as a Lingua Franca
Author: Baker, Will
The cultural dimension of foreign and second language use and teaching has risen in prominence since the 1980s. More recently there has been much interest in and debate concerning the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF). However, there has been little empirical investigation into what communication through ELF might mean for an understanding of the relationships between languages and cultures. This article reports on a qualitative study investigating seven users of English in a higher education setting in Thailand engaged in intercultural communication. Analysis of these examples of intercultural communication, together with the participants’ metadiscussions of culture, revealed cultural frames of reference perceived of and made use of in a hybrid, mixed, and liminal manner, drawing on and moving between global, national, local, and individual orientations. Although the limited number of instances reported means that further research is needed to confidently make generalisations, it is suggested that cultural forms, practices, and frames of reference through ELF may be viewed not as a priori defined categories, but as adaptive and emergent resources which are negotiated and context dependent. Therefore, ELF needs to move beyond the traditionally conceived target language-target culture relationship to incorporate an awareness of dynamic hybrid cultures and the skills to successfully negotiate them.

Globalization and Language Learning in Rural Japan: The Role of English in the Local Linguistic Ecology
Authors: Kubota, Ryuko; McKay, Sandra
Drawing on a study of current language use in a rural community in Japan, we question to what extent English actually does serve today as a lingua franca in multilingual, internationally diverse communities. Specifically, we report on a critical ethnography of a small Japanese community with a growing number of non-English-speaking immigrants, largely from Brazil but also from China, Peru, Korea, and Thailand. We investigate how people in the community view and engage in local linguistic diversity and how this is related to their subjectivities and to their experiences in learning and using English. We analyzed the public report of a community survey on diversity conducted by the city and interviewed three Japanese volunteer leaders who are teachers and learners of English and two Japanese who study Portuguese in order to support the local Brazilian migrant workers. Based on our findings, we highlight four emergent themes that provide insights into the significance of learning English in a linguistically diverse context. We also discuss the pedagogical implications of the local linguistic ecology for the teaching and learning of English.

Authenticity in the Adult ESOL Classroom and Beyond
Authors: Roberts, Celia; Cooke, Melanie
The debate over authenticity is a longstanding one in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages. This article revisits that debate in the context of linguistic-minority adults who, in the process of migration, experience a loss of independence and cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1986/2004). Adult migrants must develop authentic voices in their new second language both for social and interpersonal encounters and in bureaucratic and institutional settings such as job interviews and medical consultations. These needs are not adequately met by invented or oversimplified functional materials which flatten out interactional complexity. Rather, materials should be research based so that they exemplify the social relations and discourse routines of everyday and institutional interactions.

Institutionalized Inclusion: A Case Study on Support for Immigrants in English Learning
Author: Han, Huamei
Based on a three-year ethnography, this article illuminates how institutions and individuals can support immigrants’ language learning and settlement in today’s globalized, multicultural societies. It focuses on how a Mandarin-English bilingual Chinese church’s practices fostered a young couple’s English learning and social economic inclusion into the evangelical Christian Chinese community in Canada. Drawing on the conceptualization of learning as legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991), concretized by concepts of region and stage (Goffman, 1959) and social capital (Bourdieu, 1977, 1986), I illustrate the multiple effects of this couple’s increased participation in their church community. I then analyze how institutionalized, multiple forms of mediation (Vygotsky, 1978) opened up spaces for and assisted their increased participation. I argue that allowing ethnolinguistic minority immigrants a legitimate speaking position, at interpersonal, institutional, and ideological levels, facilitates immigrant language learning and integration.

The Denial of Ideology in Perceptions of ‘Nonnative Speaker’ Teachers
Authors: Holliday, Adrian; Aboshiha, Pamela
There is now general acceptance that the traditional ‘nonnative speaker’ label for teachers of English is problematic on sociolinguistic grounds and can be the source of employment discrimination. However, there continues to be disagreement regarding how far there is a prejudice against ‘nonnative speaker’ teachers which is deep and sustained and connected to an inherent racism within the fabric of Western society. This article argues that there is such a deep and sustained prejudice but that it is not recognised because of a denial of the ideology which underpins it on two fronts. The first is perceptions of objectivity and accountability in the dominant modernist research paradigm. The second is common descriptions of other cultures, under the headings of individualism and collectivism, which appear on the surface to be neutral, but are in fact underpinned by cultural prejudice. However, a postmodern qualitative research methodology is able to engage with the subjectivities of the unspoken discourses of TESOL professionalism, and therefore to uncover elements of global positioning and politics behind the ‘nonnative speaker’ teacher label, which in turn reveal an ideology of racism.

Volume 43, Number 3, September 2009

Current Issues in English Language Teacher-Based Assessment
Authors: Davison, Chris; Leung, Constant
Teacher-based assessment (TBA) is increasingly being promoted in educational policies internationally, with English language teachers being called on to plan and/or implement appropriate assessment procedures to monitor and evaluate student progress in their own classrooms. However, there has been a lack of theorization of TBA in the English language teaching field, with researchers pointing to much variability, a lack of systematic principles and procedures, and a reliance on traditional, but now outdated, psychometric assumptions. This article provides an overview of some of the current issues in TBA, including its definition and key characteristics, and the complex but significant questions which its implementation pose for our understandings of language, learning, and assessment.

How Do Teachers Observe and Evaluate Elementary School Students’ Foreign Language Performance? A Case Study from South Korea
Author: Butler, Yuko Goto
This study investigates how teachers observe and assess elementary school students’ foreign language performance in class and how such assessments vary among teachers. Twenty-six elementary school teachers and 23 English teachers at secondary schools in South Korea watched videotapes of 6th-grade students’ group activities in English and were asked to assess the students’ performance as if they were in their own classrooms. The study found that the teachers varied substantially in their overall evaluations both within and across school levels. A discussion held among the teachers after the individual assessments were completed showed that the elementary school teachers and secondary school teachers differed with respect to (1) their views toward assessment criteria, (2) how to evaluate student confidence and motivation, and (3) how to gauge students’ potential ability to communicate competently in a foreign language. Such differences between the elementary and secondary school teachers appeared to be deeply rooted in their respective teaching contexts. Using Davison’s (2004) framework for analyzing teachers’ beliefs and practices in teacher-based assessment, the current study suggests that both groups of teachers need to negotiate assessment criteria while paying close attention to the local context and adapting their teaching practices to fit therein.

Teacher-Based Assessment for Foreign Language Pragmatics
Author: Ishihara, Noriko
Despite the growing interest in teaching second language (L2) pragmatics, the issue of assessment of learners’ pragmatic skills, particularly in the context of the classroom, seems to be less prominently discussed, even though the assessment is an integral part of the instruction. This qualitative case study aims to demonstrate an operationalization of a principle of pragmatics within the classroom context and demonstrate the effectiveness of teacher-based assessment of pragmatic competence grounded in Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. In freshman English courses at a Japanese university, the teacher researcher implemented pragmatics-focused instruction throughout a semester based on empirically established information on speech acts in English. The instructor used collaboratively developed authentic assessment tools, such as reflective writing, rubrics, role-plays, and self/peer-assessment, and facilitated interaction and assessment in the learning process. These assessments were designed (a) to elicit learners’ pragmalinguistic competence to use community norms, (b) to elicit their sociopragmatic awareness of the consequences of their own pragmatic language choice, and (c) to evaluate the extent of the match between learners’ intention (illocution) and interlocutors’ interpretation (perlocution). Examples of the assessments actually used in the classroom and learner language will be shown, and the instructor’s assessment will be interpreted in the sociocultural framework (Vygotsky, 1978).

Group Dynamic Assessment: Mediation for the L2 Classroom
Author: Poehner, Matthew E.
Dynamic assessment (DA) offers a conceptual framework for teaching and assessment according to which the goals of understanding individuals’ abilities and promoting their development are not only complementary but are in fact dialectically integrated. More specifically, DA follows Vygotsky’s proposal of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) by offering learners external forms of mediation in order to help them perform beyond their current level of independent functioning (Vygotsky, 1986). A major challenge to implementing DA in second language (L2) classrooms is that these contexts typically do not permit the one-to-one interactions that have characterized most DA work to date (and ZPD research more generally). This article explores the use of DA with groups of classroom L2 learners rather than individuals. Group dynamic assessment (G-DA) applies the same principles of mediation as in individualized interactions but broadens the focus to potentially an entire class. Vygotsky himself recognized the possibility of constructing a group ZPD by negotiating mediation with more than one individual (see Vygotsky, 1998). Transcriptions of G-DA interactions involving L2 classroom learners are presented. It is argued that organizing classroom activity in this way enables teachers to explore and promote the group’s ZPD while also supporting the development of individual learners.

Teacher Assessment Knowledge and Practice: A Narrative Inquiry of a Chinese College EFL Teacher’s Experience
Authors: Xu, Yueting; Liu, Yongcan
This article explores teachers’ assessment knowledge and practice through a narrative inquiry of a college EFL teacher, Betty (pseudonym), in the People’s Republic of China. Drawing on Crites’ (1971) notions of sacred stories and secret stories in teachers’ professional knowledge landscapes (Connelly & Clandinin, 1995), it examines Betty’s account of her experience of assessment reform. This account comprises three stories involving her colleagues and students. Following Connelly and Clandinin’s (2006) three strands of narrative inquiry, this article discusses three structural conditions of teacher knowledge, temporality, sociality, and place, and their effects on teachers’ knowledge construction of assessment. We argue that teachers’ prior assessment experience will affect their current practices and future plans for assessment (temporality); power relationships in teachers’ workplace will greatly influence their assessment decision-making (sociality); and the specific contexts in which assessment takes place will affect teachers’ sense of security and therefore the effectiveness of the assessment (place). The findings highlight the recognition of teachers’ agency in assessment practice, the importance of negotiation with teachers of the reform policies, and the urgent need for professional development.

Volume 43, Number 2, June 2009

Middle-Class English Speakers in a Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Classroom: “Everybody Should Be Listening to Jonathan Right Now . . . ”
Author: Palmer, Deborah K.
Two-way bilingual immersion education, offered in a fast-growing number of primary schools in the United States, provides primary language maintenance to minority language speakers while simultaneously offering an enrichment “foreign” language immersion experience to English-speaking children in the same classroom, generally with the same teacher. This fusion of two different groups of children, two different sets of expectations, is controversial: Is it possible to accomplish both goals at once, or will teacher and program inevitably end up serving the needs of dominant English-speaking children first? The equation is further complicated when the English speakers in a program come from mainly highly educated middle-class families, and the Spanish speakers come from mainly working-class immigrant families, as is the case in many of these programs. Drawing on audio and video data from a year-long study in a second-grade two-way classroom that shares this class gap between language groups, and using a methodology that fuses ethnography and discourse analysis, this article explores the ways English-speaking children can impact classroom conversational dynamics.

Privileging of Speech in EAP and Mainstream University Classrooms: A Critical Evaluation of Participation
Authors: Ellwood, Constance; Nakane, Ikuko
Perceptions of Asian students as silent have been widely debated in the disciplines of applied linguistics and education. These debates have been largely concerned with the extent to which essentialised notions of Japanese culture are in operation and the consequences for teaching and learning. The silences of students and the expectations of their teachers for speech have been viewed as a clash of perceptions and understandings based on intercultural difference. The two studies presented here complexify this view. Drawing on data from interviews with Japanese students and their Australian teachers, we compare and contrast their perceptions of talk and silence in English for academic purposes classrooms and mainstream university seminars. We discuss a common expectation on the part of both parties for speech and a common frustration over an ongoing tendency to silence on the part of the Japanese students. We also show, in a comparison of the two groups, the students’ varying attitudes toward oral participation. Our discussion implies the need for a re-examination of the devaluation of silence, with the aim of contributing to improved communication practices between teachers and students in intercultural classrooms.

Collaborative Dialogue Between Thai EFL Learners During Self-Access Computer Activities
Authors: McDonough, Kim; Sunitham, Wichian
Previous studies have shown that second language (L2) learners use language to reflect on language form when they carry out collaborative classroom-based activities, and that they generally remember the language forms that they had discussed. The current study similarly investigated whether learners reflect on and remember language forms, but focused on learners’ interaction during self-access computer activities. The language-related episodes (LREs) that occurred when Thai learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) (n = 48) carried out computer activities in a self-access environment were examined, and tailor-made tests that targeted the linguistic information discussed in those LREs were administered. The results indicated that the learners’ LREs involved lexical items more often than grammatical forms, and that they successfully resolved the majority of their LREs while they were collaborating. However, their test performance indicated that they only remembered less than half of the lexical items and one-third of the grammatical forms that they had discussed. Suggestions are offered for teachers and administers interested in integrating collaborative self-access computer activities into English L2 courses.

Language Learning Strategy Use and English Proficiency of University Freshmen in Taiwan
Author: Lai, Ying-Chun
This study investigated language learning strategies used by 418 EFL learners in Taiwan and looked for relationships between learning strategy use and the patterns of strategy use based on language proficiency. The participants reported using compensation strategies most frequently and affective strategies least frequently. The most frequently used individual strategies involved guessing intelligently and overcoming limitations in using English; the least used items involved speaking and writing to others in English. The research results also showed that proficiency level has a significant effect on strategy choice and use. The more proficient learners used more learning strategies. They used metacognitive strategies and cognitive strategies most frequently and memory strategies least frequently. The less proficient learners, on the other hand, preferred social and memory strategies to cognitive and metacognitive strategies. The research also analyzed individual strategy items, finding that the strategies reported as used more frequently by the more proficient learners were arranging and planning their learning; using analytical and reasoning skills; and practicing their pronunciation and speaking.

Private Tutoring in English for Secondary School Students in Bangladesh
Authors: Hamid, M. Obaidul; Sussex, Roland; Khan, Asaduzzaman
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 43, Number 2, June 2009 , pp. 281-308(28)

Private tutoring in English (PT-E), a special and important subclass of private tutoring (PT), is a common phenomenon in ESL/EFL education in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, it has received little attention in TESOL, applied linguistics, or language education research. This article investigates the nature and practice of PT-E in a disadvantaged rural area of Bangladesh, a context where the circumstances of ESL/EFL education give it a particularly acute role. The study relates PT-E to scholastic achievement in English, investigates student attitudes and motivations in PT-E, and establishes a core profile of PT-E in relation to the school system, parent and student expectations, attitudes and motivations, and outcomes. The study follows a mixed-methods approach. Quantitative data analysis demonstrates some positive links between PT-E and English achievement, which is elaborated through a broader qualitative analysis, showing that the students had clear and structured views about PT-E, which they saw as imperative for successful learning achievement. A set of social, psychological, and institutional factors are identified which contribute to the popularity of PT-E in a less affluent society like rural Bangladesh. There are also implications for educational policy and planning, if English language education in the mainstream school system is to hold its own in the face of competition from PT-E in terms of quality and image.

Volume 43, Number 1, March 2009

The Role of Pragmatics in the Master’s TESOL Curriculum: Findings From a Nationwide Survey
Authors: Vásquez, Camilla; Sharpless, Donna
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 43, Number 1, March 2009 , pp. 5-28(24)
Recent years have seen an increase in the number of publications about pragmatics and second language learning and teaching. Yet the extent to which English language teacher preparation programs incorporate explicit instruction about pragmatics into their curricula remains unknown. A nationwide survey of master’s-level TESOL programs was conducted to determine where and how pragmatics is covered in the TESOL curriculum, what resources are used to teach graduate TESOL students about pragmatics, as well as to determine some of the prevalent attitudes, beliefs, and opinions about pragmatics held by TESOL graduate program directors and faculty. Individuals from 94 master’s-level TESOL programs in the United States participated in the study. Participating programs represent a variety of geographic regions, institution types, and departments. The findings of the study indicate that pragmatics is covered in a wide range of courses across programs (Sociolinguistics, Discourse Analysis, Introduction to Linguistics, Teaching Methods, SLA, etc.), and that the time spent covering pragmatics varies from no time at all, to more than 8 weeks, depending on the program. A great deal of variation was also found in graduate program directors’ and faculty members’ beliefs about the role of pragmatics in the TESOL curriculum.

A Conversation Analysis-Informed Test of L2 Aural Pragmatic Comprehension
Author: Walters, Scott F.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 43, Number 1, March 2009 , pp. 29-54(26)
Speech act theory-based, second language pragmatics testing (SLPT) raises test-validation issues owing to a lack of correspondence with empirical conversational data. On the assumption that conversation analysis (CA) provides a more accurate account of language use, it is suggested that CA serve as a more empirically valid basis for SLPT development. The current study explores this notion by administering a pilot CA-informed test (CAIT) of listening comprehension to learners of English as second language (ESL) and to a control group of native speakers of English. The listening CAIT protocol involved participants’ addressing multiple-choice items after listening to audiotaped conversational sequences derived from the CA literature. Statistical analyses of pilot-test responses, correlations of test score with participant demographic variables, and CA-informed, qualitative analyses of nonnative and native speaker responses with reference to operationalized pragmatic norms provided tentative evidence that the CAIT aural-comprehension measure possesses some utility in SLPT.

The Effects of Vocabulary Learning on Collocation and Meaning
Authors: Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 43, Number 1, March 2009 , pp. 55-77(23)

This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary tasks on learning collocation and meaning. Japanese English as a foreign language students learned target words in three glossed sentences and in a cloze task. To determine the effects of the treatments, four tests were used to measure receptive and productive knowledge of collocation and meaning. The results showed that both tasks led to significant gains in knowledge with little difference between the size of the gains. When participants were grouped according to level, the productive task was more effective for higher level learners, and the receptive task was more effective for lower level learners. Mean scores on the productive tests were slightly higher for both tasks on the test of meaning than on the test of collocation. However, the findings indicate knowledge of collocation may be acquired at a rate similar to that of meaning, and that tasks which focus on collocation, as well as meaning, may be effective.

Effects of Synonym Generation on Incidental and Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning During Reading
Author: Barcroft, Joe
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 43, Number 1, March 2009 , pp. 79-103(25)

This study examined effects of synonym generation on second language (L2) vocabulary learning during reading in both incidental and intentional vocabulary learning contexts. Spanish-speaking adult learners of L2 English (N = 114) at low- and high-intermediate proficiency levels read an English passage containing 10 target words translated in the text. Participants were assigned to one of four conditions: (a) Read for meaning only (incidental). (b) Read for meaning and try to learn the translated words (intentional). (c) Read for meaning and generate Spanish synonyms for the translated words (incidental + semantic). (d) Read for meaning, try to learn the 10 translated words, and generate Spanish synonyms for the translated words (intentional + semantic). Posttest measures were English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English recall of target words. Target word recall was higher when explicit instructions to learn new words were provided and when synonym generation was not required. Negative effects of synonym generation emerged in both the incidental and intentional learning conditions.

Volume 42, Number 4, December 2008

Multimodal Genre Systems in EAP Writing Pedagogy: Reflecting on a Needs Analysis
Authors: Molle, Daniella; Prior, Paul
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 4, December 2008 , pp. 541-566(26)

This article reports on a genre-based needs analysis for a graduate course in English for academic purposes (EAP) at a large public U.S. university. In particular, it describes the theoretical reconceptualizations of genre analysis that the data provoked. Using ethnographic methods, an investigation of academic genres in several classrooms in three academic disciplines (civil and environmental engineering, architecture, and music) found three complexities that challenged the original premises of the needs analysis: (a) that academic genres existed in genre sets and systems that involved process and pedagogical genres as well as genres of disciplinary or academic presentation; (b) that genres were routinely multimodal in process and form; and (c) that the discursive character of particular texts was routinely quite hybrid. This article discusses and illustrates each of these findings and argues for understanding them as dimensions of multimodal genre systems.

The Mediational Role of Classroom Practices During the Silent Period: A New-Immigrant Student Learning the English Language in a Mainstream Classroom
Authors: DaSilva Iddings, Ana Christina; Jang, Eun-Young
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 4, December 2008 , pp. 567-590(24)

For this article we aimed to understand the emergence of English as a second language for a newly immigrated Mexican student, a native speaker of Spanish, enrolled in a mainstream kindergarten classroom, who was undergoing the silent period (Krashen, 1981). Applying ecological approaches that emphasize learners in relationship with their environment, we analyzed three particular classroom practices and their respective mediational roles for the development of a second language (L2). Following Tomasello’s (1999, 2003) recognition that the understanding of communicative intentions is an essential prerequisite for language development, we argue that certain characteristics of routine classroom practices (i.e., shared objects, infrastructural elements, and speech patterns) provided key interactional and contextual affordances for the understanding and internalization of a shared system of symbols (linguistic and nonlinguistic) and, thus, for the emergence of the L2. This research suggests that our focal student was intentionally and actively engaged in L2 learning during this period of silence. In addition, our findings suggest that although the understanding of communicative intentions contributed to the legitimization of a student identity for the learner during the silent period, it did not contribute to the learning of academic content. We argue that ambiguity and multiplicity of intentions conveyed in some classroom actions may be particularly challenging for L2 learners in mainstream classrooms.

Graphic Display of Linguistic Information in English as a Foreign Language Reading
Authors: Suzuki, Akio; Sato, Takeshi; Awazu, Shunji
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 4, December 2008 , pp. 591-616(26)

Two studies investigated the advantage and instructional effectiveness of the spatial graphic representation of an English sentence with coordinators over a linear sentential representation in English as a foreign language (EFL) reading settings. Experiment 1, Study 1, examined whether readers studying EFL could better comprehend the sentence—in which multiple information items are connected by coordinating conjunctions—when provided with a spatial representation than when provided with a sentential representation. Experiment 2 of Study 1 examined whether the advantage observed in Experiment 1 was due to Larkin and Simon’s (1987) computational efficacy by testing whether two different task-completion times would affect the performance of two different display groups. Study 2 examined the effectiveness of the instruction manual, which we compiled, in enabling students to rearrange a linear text with coordinating conjunctions into a spatial display for self-study. The results indicated that the spatial graphic display enhanced EFL readers’ comprehension of sentences with coordinators more than the sentential display did, and EFL readers were able to accurately rearrange a linear sentential text into a spatial display by using the instruction manual.

The Cultural and Intercultural Identities of Transnational English Teachers: Two Case Studies from the Americas
Author: Menard-Warwick, Julia
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 4, December 2008 , pp. 617-640(24)

This article presents case studies of two long-time English language teachers: a California English as a second language instructor originally from Brazil, and a Chilean English as a foreign language teacher who worked for many years in the United States before returning home. Based on interview and classroom observation data, this research explores teachers’ perspectives on the connections between their transnational life experiences and their development of intercultural competence, how they define their own (inter)cultural identities; and how they approach cultural issues with their English language learners. Although both women self-identify as bicultural, they were observed to have somewhat different approaches to teaching cultural issues: The California teacher emphasizes subjective comparisons between the many national cultures represented in her classroom, but the teacher in Chile focuses more on the cultural changes that she and her students have experienced as a result of globalization. Whereas previous studies of teacher identity in TESOL have focused primarily on the dichotomy between native- and nonnative-English-speaking teachers, this article argues that the profession needs to put more value on the pedagogical resources that transnational and intercultural teachers bring to English language teaching. I end with implications for educating intercultural teachers.

Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008
Psycholinguistics for TESOL

Face to Face With the Ghost in the Machine: Psycholinguistics and TESOL
Author: Field, John
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 361-374(14)

(Abstract not available)

Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL
Authors: Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 375-396(22)
Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of formula from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines English as a second language (ESL) and English for academic purposes (EAP) instructors’ evaluations of their pedagogical importance. It summarizes three experiments which show that different aspects of formulaicity affect the accuracy and fluency of processing of these formulas in native speakers and in advanced L2 learners of English. The language processing tasks were selected to sample an ecologically valid range of language processing skills: spoken and written, production and comprehension. Processing in all experiments was affected by various corpus-derived metrics: length, frequency, and mutual information (MI), but to different degrees in the different populations. For native speakers, it is predominantly the MI of the formula which determines processability; for nonnative learners of the language, it is predominantly the frequency of the formula. The implications of these findings are discussed for (a) the psycholinguistic validity of corpus-derived formulas, (b) a model of their acquisition, (c) ESL and EAP instruction and the prioritization of which formulas to teach.

Air Traffic Communication in a Second Language: Implications of Cognitive Factors for Training and Assessment
Authors: Farris, Candace; Trofimovich, Pavel; Segalowitz, Norman; Gatbonton, Elizabeth
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 397-410(14)
This study investigated the effects of second language (L2) proficiency and task-induced cognitive workload on participants’ speech production and retention of information in an environment designed to simulate the demands faced by pilots receiving instructions from air-traffic controllers. Three groups of 20 participants (one native-English-speaking group, two native-Mandarin-speaking groups of relatively high and low levels of English proficiency) played the role of pilots. Participants listened to, repeated, and responded to simulated air-traffic controller messages (in English) under conditions of low and high workload. In the high workload condition, participants performed a concurrent arithmetic task while repeating the messages. The dependent variables were message repetition accuracy and speech production (accentedness, comprehensibility, fluency, as perceived by 10 native-English-speaking raters). The native English speaker group repeated messages more accurately than both L2 groups, and the low-proficiency group repeated messages less accurately in the high workload condition than in the low workload condition. The native speaker and the low-proficiency groups were perceived as less fluent in the high than in the low workload condition, and only the low-proficiency group’s speech was perceived as more accented in the high than in the low workload condition. Implications for language training and assessment for English for specific purposes are discussed.

Bricks or Mortar: Which Parts of the Input Does a Second Language Listener Rely on?
Author: Field, John
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 411-432(22)
There is considerable evidence from psycholinguistics that first language listeners handle function words differently from content words. This makes intuitive sense because content words require the listener to access a lexical meaning representation whereas function words do not. A separate channel of processing for functors would enable them to be detected faster. The question is of importance to our understanding of second language (L2) listening. Because what is extracted from the input by L2 listeners is generally less than complete, it is useful for the instructor to know which parts of the signal they are likely to recognize, and which parts are likely to be lost to them. On the one hand, L2 listeners might rely heavily on function words because high frequency renders them familiar. On the other, they might have difficulty identifying function words confidently within a piece of connected speech because functors in English are usually brief and of low perceptual prominence. The current study investigated intake by intermediate-level L2 listeners to establish whether function or content words are processed more accurately and reported more frequently. It found that the recognition of functors fell significantly behind that of lexical words. The finding was remarkably robust across first languages and across levels of proficiency, suggesting that it may reflect the way in which L2 listeners choose to distribute their attention.

The Psycholinguistic Dimension in Second Language Writing: Opportunities for Research and Pedagogy Using Computer Keystroke Logging
Authors: Miller, Kristyan Spelman; Lindgren, Eva; Sullivan, Kirk P.H.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 433-454(22)
This article discusses the use of computer logging as a means of investigating aspects of the second language (L2) writing process as writers are engaged in producing text at the keyboard. The observation of writing by means of this method provides researchers with detailed information concerning aspects of the planning, formulation, and revision processes. This function is illustrated by reference to a study in Sweden of school-age learners of English as an additional language whose written production was recorded as part of a longitudinal study, and findings from the study are presented. The discussion highlights the potential uses of logging, not only not in relation to researching writers’ processes, but also as a pedagogic tool given that its replay facility allows access to information about aspects of the writers’ attention and strategies as they write.

Phonology in Second Language Reading: Not an Optional Extra
Author: Walter, Catherine
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 455-474(20)
In examining reading comprehension in a second language (L2), I have demonstrated that the prevailing metaphor of transfer of skills is misleading, and that what happens is access to an already existing general cognitive skill. There is evidence in first language (L1) and in L2 that accessing this skill when reading in an alphabetic language involves efficient use of verbal working memory (VWM). This article reports a study of a component of VWM, the phonological loop, which serves to hold recently read material available in a phonological form. The study investigated whether the unreliability of learners’ mental L2 phonological inventories contributed to reading comprehension problems. Lower intermediate learners with L2 reading comprehension problems attempted to recall similar and dissimilar sequences of words in L1 (French) and L2 (English). Their performance was consistent with their having unreliable L2 phonological inventories; their upper intermediate counterparts, who had no L2 reading comprehension problems, had significantly more reliable L2 phonological inventories. This finding has important implications for the classroom: Rather than attempting to teach components of a cognitive skill that learners already possess, teachers would do better to spend the equivalent time increasing exposure to the spoken language, and improving receptive and productive phonology.

Assessing Text Readability Using Cognitively Based Indices
Authors: Crossley, Scott A.; Greenfield, Jerry; McNamara, Danielle S.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 475-493(19)
Many programs designed to compute the readability of texts are narrowly based on surface-level linguistic features and take too little account of the processes which a reader brings to the text. This study is an exploratory examination of the use of Coh-Metrix, a computational tool that measures cohesion and text difficulty at various levels of language, discourse, and conceptual analysis. It is suggested that Coh-Metrix provides an improved means of measuring English text readability for second language (L2) readers, not least because three Coh-Metrix variables, one employing lexical coreferentiality, one measuring syntactic sentence similarity, and one measuring word frequency, have correlates in psycholinguistic theory. The current study draws on the validation exercise conducted by Greenfield (1999) with Japanese EFL students, which partially replicated Bormuth’s (1971) study with American students. It finds that Coh-Metrix, with its inclusion of the three variables, yields a more accurate prediction of reading difficulty than traditional readability measures. The finding indicates that linguistic variables related to cognitive reading processes contribute significantly to better readability prediction than the surface variables used in traditional formulas. Additionally, because these Coh-Metrix variables better reflect psycholinguistic factors in reading comprehension such as decoding, syntactic parsing, and meaning construction, the formula appears to be more soundly based and avoids criticism on the grounds of construct validity.

Phonemic Awareness in Chinese L1 Readers of English: Not Simply an Effect of Orthography
Authors: McDowell, Heather J.; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 495-513(19)

The current study investigates the phonemic awareness and nonword processing of English as a foreign language students from Hong Kong and Mainland China, with reference to factors considered the main facilitators of phonemic awareness: written language experience, spoken language experience, and metalinguistic training. The Mainland Chinese students were literate in Pinyin, an alphabetic representation of Chinese, and were first language (L1) speakers of Mandarin. Half of the Mainland Chinese students had also been exposed to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in their second language (L2) reading education. The Hong Kong students were not Pinyin literate and spoke Cantonese. The Mainland Chinese IPA-trained participants performed better than both the Hong Kong participants and the Mainland Chinese non-IPA-trained participants in initial phoneme deletion. However, both Mainland Chinese groups outperformed the Hong Kong group on a phoneme-grapheme nonword matching task. This pattern of results suggests that phonemic awareness in Chinese L1 readers of English is not simply an effect of orthography, but rather, may be interpreted in terms of access to explicit demonstration of phonemes. Further, tests carried out in L2 which are intended to assess metalinguistic awareness may be susceptible to artefacts introduced by the participants’ L1 spoken language.

Cross-Linguistic Influence on Word Search in Tip-of-the-Tongue States
Author: Ecke, Peter
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 515-527(13)

(Abstract Not available)

Using Cognates to Investigate Cross-Language Competition in Second Language Processing
Authors: Sunderman, Gretchen; Schwartz, Ana I.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 3, September 2008 , pp. 527-536(10)

(Abstract Not available)

Volume 42, Number 2, June 2008

Form-Focused Instruction: Isolated or Integrated?
Authors: Spada, Nina; Lightbown, Patsy M.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 2, June 2008 , pp. 181-207(27)

There is increasing consensus that form-focused instruction helps learners in communicative or content-based instruction to learn features of the target language that they may not acquire without guidance. The subject of this article is the role of instruction that is provided in separate (isolated) activities or within the context of communicative activities (integrated). Research suggests that both types of instruction can be beneficial, depending on the language feature to be learned, as well as characteristics of the learner and the learning conditions. For example, isolated lessons may be necessary to help learners who share the same first language (L1) overcome problems related to L1 influence on their interlanguage; integrated instruction may be best for helping learners develop the kind of fluency and automaticity that are needed for communication outside the classroom. The evidence suggests that teachers and students see the benefits of both types of instruction. Explanations for the effectiveness of each type of instruction are drawn from theoretical work in second language acquisition and cognitive psychology as well as from empirical research.

Japanese Learners’ Self Revisions and Peer Revisions of Their Written Compositions in English
Author: Suzuki, Manami
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 2, June 2008 , pp. 209-233(25)
The current study examined 24 Japanese university students’ processes of negotiation in conditions of self revision and of peer revision about their English as a foreign language (EFL) writing. Analyzing their negotiation episodes and text changes, I categorized within a common coding scheme the types of negotiation from (a) think-aloud protocols of participants’ self revisions, (b) transcriptions of their discussions during peer revisions, and (c) changes students made to their written texts in both conditions of revising. Other data included stimulated recall interviews with individual students. More episodes of negotiation appeared during peer revisions (682 episodes) than during self revisions (522 episodes), but approximately twice as many text changes occurred during participants’ self revisions (287 text changes) as occurred during their peer revisions (166 text changes). Peer revisions had more metatalk than self revisions. Self revision tended to involve brief solitary searches for word choices or self-corrections of grammar based on individual memory searches or repetitions. Several pedagogical suggestions for second language (L2) learning and writing arise from these results.

Learner Outcomes for English Language Learner Low Readers in an Early Intervention
Authors: Kelly, Patricia R.; Gómez-Bellengé, Francisco-Xavier; Chen, Jing; Schulz, Melissa M.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 2, June 2008 , pp. 235-260(26)
This study investigated the efficacy of Reading Recovery® (RR) with first grade English language learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools by examining the literacy outcomes of ELLs compared with their native English-speaking (NES) peers, who were also enrolled in RR. We also explored how ELLs’ fall oral English proficiency levels were related to their spring literacy levels. Pre- and post-test measures included tests of text reading and phonemic awareness, because text reading is the broadest measure of reading ability and phonemic awareness is an important aspect of reading and oral English proficiency. Results indicated that 76.42% of NES and 69% of ELLs who had a complete program of intervention successfully achieved grade-level performance. These differences were statistically significant but the effect size was small. Overall, the differences between RR NESs and RR ELLs are not sufficient, when they exist, to warrant excluding ELL students from the RR intervention. In schools where students do not have access to bilingual education, Reading Recovery is an appropriate addition to the range of best-practice services available to ELLs.

Transforming Talk And Phonics Practice: Or, How Do Crabs Clap?
Author: Gardner, Sheena
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 2, June 2008 , pp. 261-284(24)
This article aims first to show how a teacher, working within a nationally proscriptive, standards-driven, mainstream context turns a form-focused phonics practice activity into a word game that engages the imagination, intellect, and identity of 5-6-year-old English language learners. Based on the assumption that teacher-student interactions are crucial for bilingual students’ success at school (Cummins 2000, p. 6), the transformation in the 15-minute Literacy Hour word work activity is presented in terms of five key discourse threads related to (a) covering the curriculum, (b) surface justification, (c) deep justification through shared imaging, (d) shifting the locus of experience, and (e) playing the word game, each of which is explained by different theoretical perspectives, and each of which embodies different pedagogical principles. The subsequent discussion focuses on the fundamental changes in instructional and social assumptions about the nature of language, knowledge, learning, the curriculum, and student outcomes to explain how the traditional pedagogy implicit in the published activity develops into a constructive and then a transformative pedagogy (Cummins, 2001, p. 219). The article shows how pedagogical transformation works on multiple related assumptions and how these are realised in discourse threads weaved through the teacher-student interaction.

Volume 42 Number 1, March 2010

“I’m Very Not About the Law Part”: Nonnative Speakers of English and the Miranda Warnings
Author: Pavlenko, Aneta
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 1, March 2008 , pp. 1-30(30)
This article presents a case study of a police interrogation of a nonnative speaker (NNS) of English. I show that the high linguistic and conceptual complexity of police cautions, such as the Miranda warnings, complicates understanding of these texts even by NNSs of English with a high level of interactional competence. I argue that the U.S. criminal justice system should accommodate NNSs of English at all proficiency levels by adopting a bilingual standard, that is, by offering the Miranda warnings in English and in a standardized translation into the speaker’s native language. I also argue that common legal terms, concepts, and texts need to find a place in the adult ESL curriculum.

Teaching and Learning Sociolinguistic Skills in University EFL Classes in Taiwan
Author: Yu, Ming-Chung
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 1, March 2008 , pp. 31-53(23)
The study reported in the present article was a process-product investigation of foreign language classroom practice and its effects on learners’ development of sociolinguistic competence, which, though important for appropriateness of language use, has long been neglected in L2 teaching. Based on classroom observation, the study examined the extent to which college English classes in Taiwan were instructed in this specific aspect of communicative competence and how learners’ performance might be linked to the instructions they received. The findings showed that no matter whether a given class was considered more communicatively oriented or less, sociolinguistic instruction was mostly neglected in classroom practice, and that, although the participants had different learning outcomes in speaking and listening skills, they did not differ in sociolinguistic performance.

Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation
Authors: Guilloteaux, Marie J.; Dörnyei, Zoltán
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 1, March 2008 , pp. 55-77(23)
The teacher’s use of motivational strategies is generally believed to enhance student motivation, yet the literature has little empirical evidence to support this claim. Based on a large-scale investigation of 40 ESOL classrooms in South Korea involving 27 teachers and more than 1,300 learners, this study examined the link between the teachers’ motivational teaching practice and their students’ language learning motivation. The students’ motivation was measured by a self-report questionnaire and a classroom observation instrument specifically developed for this investigation, the motivation orientation of language teaching (MOLT). The MOLT observation scheme was also used to assess the teachers’ use of motivational strategies, along with a posthoc rating scale filled in by the observer. The MOLT follows the real-time coding principle of Spada and Fröhlich’s (1995) communication orientation of language teaching (COLT) scheme but uses categories of observable teacher behaviors derived from Dörnyei’s (2001) motivational strategies framework for foreign language classrooms. The results indicate that the language teachers’ motivational practice is linked to increased levels of the learners’ motivated learning behavior as well as their motivational state.

Positive Feedback in Pairwork and Its Association With ESL Course Level Promotion
Author: Reigel, David
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 1, March 2008 , pp. 79-98(20)
What is the role of positive feedback in the adult English language classroom? This study applies ideas from complexity theory to explore the relation between frequency of oral feedback received and student language proficiency. The researcher collected data from digital recordings of adult students (N = 41) who attended classes for 30 weeks at Portland State University Laboratory School. During the focused observation, the researcher recorded tokens of praise, affirmation, laughter, and nodding given by teachers and students in response to target student interlanguage. Students provide far more affirmation tokens than praise tokens to their peers, while teachers issue each with nearly equal frequency. Statistical tests support the hypothesis that the rate of positive feedback received is associated with ESL student course level promotion regardless of student variables such as initial course level, gender, and first language (L1). The results support a possible language learning model akin to the complexity theory notion of increasing returns: Minor initial gains in producing English can result in more rapid second language development, the gains building on one another to form a positive feedback loop.

Volume 41, Number 4, December 2007

Complexities of Identity Formation: A Narrative Inquiry of an EFL Teacher
Author: Tsui, Amy B.M.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 4, December 2007 , pp. 657-680(24)
This article explores teachers’ identity formation through a narrative inquiry of the professional identity of an EFL teacher, Minfang, in the People’s Republic of China. Drawing on Wenger’s (1998) social theory of identity formation as a dual process of identification and negotiation of meanings, it examines the lived experience of Minfang as an EFL learner and EFL teacher throughout his 6 years of teaching, the processes that were involved as he struggled with multiple identities, the interplay between reification and negotiation of meanings, and the institutional construction and his personal reconstruction of identities. The stories of Minfang highlighted the complex relationships between membership, competence, and legitimacy of access to practice; between the appropriation and ownership of meanings, the centrality of participation, and the mediating role of power relationships in the processes of identity formation.

English Language Teachers Reflecting on Reflections: A Malaysian Experience
Author: Kamarul Kabilan, Muhammad
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 4, December 2007 , pp. 681-705(25)
Key characteristics of an efficient and effective English language teacher are fundamental pedagogical knowledge and understanding, awareness of meaningful classroom practices, linguistic capabilities, and positive attitudes and skills. Nurturing these traits among preservice teachers is difficult, especially when preservice teachers are working in a nonnative English language learning and teaching environment and when they have insufficient pedagogical and linguistic knowledge. One way of overcoming these difficulties is by facilitating activities that enable these future teachers to develop a critical and reflective awareness of their classroom practices. This article reports the practice of reflecting on reflections by future English language teachers in the Malaysian context. In the first phase, they (a) self-examine their practices (by writing their own reflections and reading others’ critiques of their practices) and (b) examine others’ practices (by critiquing others’ practices and providing suggestions). These activities have inspired among future teachers an awareness of their own development and of current professional knowledge. Also, participants were able to identify the changes they need to make to become more effective teachers. In the next phase, reflecting on their reflections, the teachers were able to internalize pedagogical knowledge and practices that were useful to them.

Preparing Teachers of Second Language Reading
Author: Janzen, Joy
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 4, December 2007 , pp. 707-729(23)
In preparing teachers of English language learners (ELLs), teacher educators face a formidable challenge in the area of reading. Reading is a complex skill that is critical to ELLs’ academic achievement. Given the complexity and importance of reading and reading instruction, what topics should be addressed by teacher educators in methods courses? This article reports on a study designed to answer this question. The ESOL faculty in a small urban school district were interviewed about reading and observed in their classrooms over the course of 2 years. Six issues were identified as important to these teachers. They were (a) working with a range of learner proficiencies; (b) the use of materials; (c) instructional practices in the areas of decoding skills, vocabulary, writing, and thematic teaching; (d) developing students’ love of reading; (e) coping with mainstream teachers and school demands; and (f) working with students who have limited proficiency or schooling in their first languages. The article compares issues raised by the practicing teachers in interviews and observations with the research literature and methods textbooks and outlines considerations for a methods curriculum.

How Are Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers Perceived by Young Learners?
Author: Goto Butler, Yuko
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 4, December 2007 , pp. 731-755(25)
The current study examined the effects of Korean elementary school teachers’ accents on their students’ listening comprehension. It also examined students’ attitudes toward teachers with American-accented English (a native speaker model) and Korean-accented English (a nonnative speaker model). A matched-guised technique was used. A Korean American individual recorded texts in both American-accented English and Korean-accented English. The study randomly assigned 312 Grade 6 Korean students to listen to one of these two recorded oral texts and their comprehension was examined. Next, all of the students listened to both accented-English tapes and their attitudes toward the two speakers (which were in fact the same speaker) were examined. Although the popular belief appears to assume that nonnative accented English would produce a negative effect on students’ oral skills, the results failed to find any differences in student performance in terms of comprehension. However, the Korean children thought that the American-accented English guise had better pronunciation, was relatively more confident in her use of English, would focus more on fluency than on accuracy, and would use less Korean in the English class. The students also expressed a preference to have the American-accented English guise as their English teacher.

The Impact of School on EFL Learning Motivation: An Indonesian Case Study
Author: Lamb, Martin
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 4, December 2007 , pp. 757-780(24)
There is much evidence that, in general, learners’ motivation to study declines as they move through school and that the causes are both developmental and environmental. By contrast, the attitudinal basis of language learning motivation has been regarded as relatively stable, though recent empirical studies in various countries have also pointed toward a fall-off in interest and enthusiasm for foreign languages among pupils. This article reports on research into the motivation of Indonesian adolescents toward learning English over the first 20 months of junior high school. Using a mixed-method design, the study aimed to track changes in their reported motivation and learning activity and to identify internal and external factors which might be associated with the changes. It was found that the learners’ initially very positive attitudes toward the language and expectations of success were maintained over the period, whereas their attitudes toward the experience of formal learning tended to deteriorate. Explanations for these outcomes are sought in the social context and, in particular, in how individuals view English as pertaining to their futures.

Volume 41, Number 3, September 2007
Language Policies and TESOL: Perspectives From Practice

TESOL and Policy Enactments: Perspectives From Practice
Authors: Ramanathan, Vaidehi; Morgan, Brian
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 3, September 2007 , pp. 447-463(17)
Prior research in the area of language policy and planning (LPP) has been focused primarily on macro decision-making and the impact of national, local, and institutional policies in educational settings. Only recently have scholars begun examining the everyday contexts in which policies are interpreted and negotiated in ways that reflect local constraints and possibilities. The redirection of inquiry toward situated policy enactments in TESOL is the central theme of this special issue and the introductory article. In this article we address and expand on several key themes that arise from and unify the various contributions to the issue: (a) the enhanced status and implications of locality in policy research, (b) practitioner agency and the ethical concerns involved, (c) the globalization of particularistic agendas (i.e., neoliberalism) and their impact on nation-state identities and policy enactments.

The Policy-Practice Nexus in English Classrooms in Delhi, Johannesburg, and London: Teachers and the Textual Cycle
Authors: Bhattacharya, Rimli; Gupta, Snehlata; Jewitt, Carey; Newfield, Denise; Reed, Yvonne; Stein, Pippa
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 3, September 2007 , pp. 465-487(23)
This article makes a methodological contribution to investigating the policy-practice nexus in the English classroom. It looks beyond language to offer a multimodal case study analysis of English classrooms in three cities: Delhi, Johannesburg, and London. The article shows how policies mediated by the agencies of the state, the school, the English department, and individual teachers are inflected and refracted through the textual cycle to position teachers and students in particular ways. The case studies show local, specific inflections of what teachers are able to do within the constraints of the policy-practice nexus and provide insights into how subject English is realised across three countries, each of which has a distinct social, historical, and cultural relation to English. This study has implications for developing teachers’ critical understandings of their central role in translating subject English through the textual cycle.

No ESL in English Schools: Language Policy in Quebec and Implications for TESL Teacher Education
Author: Winer, Lise
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 3, September 2007 , pp. 489-508(20)
In this article, various aspects of official language policy in Quebec are seen as interacting with contested and contesting ideologies, as experienced by novice teachers in teaching English as a second or other language within the majority French school system. The context of TESL training in Quebec is described, focusing on legislative policy and the status of English in schools. This is followed by a discussion of problems encountered in the current educational context by students in a bachelor’s of education in TESL program at an English university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Several concerns were identified through student responses to a questionnaire and from reflection on their student-teaching experiences. The resulting areas discussed here are the consequences of low student-teacher language proficiency (English and French); ambivalent or hostile attitudes toward English or English as a second language (ESL) on the part of students and teachers in schools; (non)use of English in the ESL classroom; low motivation of ESL students; and the nature of English language and culture in Quebec. Although none of these is unique to this context, the particular circumstances, history, and ideologies in this context are major factors in the government language policy, popular language attitudes, and second language education practice. For each area of concern, specific ways in which the teacher education program addresses these concerns are described, including excerpts from a student teacher-to-student teacher advice handbook.

Slicing the Onion Ethnographically: Layers and Spaces in Multilingual Language Education Policy and Practice
Authors: Hornberger, Nancy H.; Johnson, David Cassels
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 3, September 2007 , pp. 509-532(24)
In this article, we take up the call for more multilayered and ethnographic approaches to language policy and planning (LPP) research by sharing two examples of how ethnography can illuminate local interpretation and implementation. We offer ethnographic data collected in two very different institutions—the School District of Philadelphia and the Andean regional graduate program in bilingual intercultural education in Cochabamba, Bolivia—both of which act as intermediary agencies between national language policies and local educational initiatives. Drawing from long-term ethnographic work in each context, we present excerpts from spoken and written discourse that shed light on the opening up or closing down of ideological and implementational spaces for multilingual language education policy and practice. We illustrate through our examples that ethnographic research can, metaphorically speaking, slice through the layers of the LPP onion (Ricento & Hornberger, 1996) to reveal agentive spaces in which local actors implement, interpret, and perhaps resist policy initiatives in varying and unique ways.

Alternative Contexts of Language Policy and Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa
Author: Omoniyi, Tope
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 3, September 2007 , pp. 533-549(17)
My main contention in this article is that the nation-state paradigm for policies targeted at effecting development in sub-Saharan Africa is undermined by arbitrary colonial boundaries and porous borders and the challenges of transnationalism as part of the globalization phenomenon in late modernity. The nation-state paradigm is also the framework for guaranteed dominance of English and French, the two main excolonial official languages of sub-Saharan Africa, because the indigenous languages, at least theoretically, operate within ethnic boundaries. I cite evidence of internal migration and displacement across national boundaries to argue that policies which are coterminous with these boundaries motivate people to move. I suggest that the treatment of boundaries as zones of continuity rather than discontinuity will allow for the development of stronger interstate agencies within which framework projects may be better managed. I present evidence of the difficulty in pushing macro-language policy and planning and make a case for micro-language policy and planning not only as a more viable alternative in the region but also one for which success is easier to measure.

Volume 41, Number 2, June 2007

Is There an “Academic Vocabulary”?
Authors: Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 235-253(19)
This article considers the notion of academic vocabulary: the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head’s (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its 570 word families in a corpus of 3.3 million words from a range of academic disciplines and genres. The findings suggest that although the AWL covers 10.6% of the corpus, individual lexical items on the list often occur and behave in different ways across disciplines in terms of range, frequency, collocation, and meaning. This result suggests that the AWL might not be as general as it was intended to be and, more importantly, questions the widely held assumption that students need a single core vocabulary for academic study. We argue that the different practices and discourses of disciplinary communities undermine the usefulness of such lists and recommend that teachers help students develop a more restricted, discipline-based lexical repertoire.

The Effect of Focused Written Corrective Feedback and Language Aptitude on ESL Learners’ Acquisition of Articles
Author: Sheen, Younghee
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 255-283(29)
This study examines the differential effect of two types of written corrective feedback (CF) and the extent to which language analytic ability mediates the effects of CF on the acquisition of articles by adult intermediate ESL learners of various L1 backgrounds (N = 91). Three groups were formed: a direct-only correction group, a direct metalinguistic correction group, and a control group. The study found that both treatment groups performed much better than the control group on the immediate posttests, but the direct metalinguistic group performed better than the direct-only correction group in the delayed posttests. It also found a significantly positive association between students’ gains and their aptitude for language analysis. Moreover, language analytic ability was more strongly related to acquisition in the direct metalinguistic group than in the direct-only group. The results showed that written CF targeting a single linguistic feature improved learners’ accuracy, especially when metalinguistic feedback was provided and the learners had high language analytic ability.

Task Familiarity and Interactional Feedback in Child ESL Classrooms
Authors: Mackey, Alison; Kanganas, Alec Peter; Oliver, Rhonda
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 285-312(28)
In this article we report on a study undertaken with ESL children between 7 and 8 years old. They carried out communicative tasks in pairs in second language classrooms. We examined patterns of their task-based conversational interactions while we manipulated their familiarity with the procedure and content of the tasks. We found that learners working through unfamiliar tasks (in terms of both content and procedure) produced more clarification requests and confirmation checks and provided more corrective feedback on nontargetlike utterances to each other. However, learners engaged in procedurally familiar tasks had more opportunities to use feedback, and learners engaged in tasks that were familiar in both content and procedure showed more actual use of feedback.

Development of Speed and Accuracy in Pragmatic Comprehension in English as a Foreign Language
Author: Taguchi, Naoko
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 313-338(26)
This study examined development of pragmatic comprehension ability across time. Twenty native speakers and 92 Japanese college students of English completed a computerized listening task measuring ability to comprehend two types of implied meaning in dialogues: indirect refusals (k = 24) and indirect opinions (k = 24). The participants’ comprehension was analyzed for accuracy (scores on the listening task) and comprehension speed (average time taken to answer each item correctly). L2 learners’ accuracy and comprehension speed improved significantly over a 7-week period. However, the magnitude of effect was lower for comprehension speed than for accuracy. This study also examined the relationships among general L2 proficiency (measured on the ITP TOEFL), speed of lexical judgment (measured on a word recognition task), and pragmatic comprehension ability. There was a significant relationship between proficiency and accuracy (r = 0.39), as well as between lexical access speed and comprehension speed (r = 0.40). However, L2 proficiency bore no relationship to comprehension speed, and lexical access speed had no relationship with accuracy. Moreover, accuracy and comprehension speed were not related to each other. These findings suggest that development of pragmatic knowledge and processing capacity of using the knowledge may not coincide perfectly in L2 development.

Pointing Out Frequent Phrasal Verbs: A Corpus-Based Analysis
Authors: Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 339-359(21)
This study attempts to shed new light on one of the most notoriously challenging aspects of English language instruction—the English phrasal verbs. The highest frequency phrasal verb constructions in the 100-million-word British National Corpus are identified and analyzed. The findings indicate that a small subset of 20 lexical verbs combines with eight adverbial particles (160 combinations) to account for more than one half of the 518,923 phrasal verb occurrences identified in the megacorpus. A more specific analysis indicates that only 25 phrasal verbs account for nearly one third of all phrasal-verb occurrences in the British National Corpus, and 100 phrasal verbs account for more than one half of all such items. Subsequent semantic analyses show that these 100 high-frequency phrasal verb forms have potentially 559 variant-meaning senses. The authors discuss how learners, teachers, and materials developers might utilize the findings of the study to improve instruction of phrasal verbs in English language education.

Spoken Grammar and ELT Course Materials: A Missing Link?
Authors: Cullen, Richard; Kuo, I-Chun
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 2, June 2007 , pp. 361-386(26)
Drawing on the evidence of a growing body of corpus research over the past two decades, this article investigates the phenomenon of spoken grammar in conversational English and the extent to which our current knowledge of the area is reflected in contemporary textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. The article reports on a survey conducted by the authors of 24 general EFL textbooks published in the United Kingdom since the year 2000 and concludes, on the basis of the survey, that coverage of features of spoken grammar is at best patchy. Where it is dealt with at all, there tends to be an emphasis on lexicogrammatical features, and common syntactic structures peculiar to conversation are either ignored or confined to advanced levels as interesting extras. We argue that this is inadequate for many learners, particularly those for whom the development of oral fluency in informal interactions with native speakers is an important goal.

Volume 41, Number 1, March 2007

Evangelical Christians and English Language Teaching
Authors: Varghese, Manka M.; Johnston, Bill
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 1, March 2007 , pp. 5-31(27)
Evangelical Christians are an enduring and growing presence in the field of English language teaching worldwide and in the TESOL organization in particular. Yet to date, hardly any empirical research has been done on this population of teachers or on the links between English teaching, religious beliefs, and missionary work. This article reports on a qualitative study of ten English language teachers-in-training at two evangelical Christian colleges in the United States. Using interview data, the study explores the religious beliefs of the participants and the complex, varied, and often still developing ways in which these beliefs relate to their perspectives on missionary work and on the relationship between religious faith and English language teaching (ELT). We conclude by identifying a key moral dilemma raised by the participants’ values as related to several of the dominant discourses present in ELT.

A Pedagogical Application of Liminalities in Social Positioning: Identity and Literacy in Singapore
Authors: Stroud, Christopher; Wee, Lionel
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 1, March 2007 , pp. 33-54(22)

A growing body of research recognizes the pervasive difficulties involved in accommodating multilingual practices in the English language classroom and acknowledges that one aspect of this conundrum is the role that languages play in the constitution of student identities. Such studies point to how students use off-stage spaces to covertly engage identities that are devalued in on-stage classroom interaction that comes under the teacher’s authority. In this article, we examine data on Singapore English classrooms at the secondary school level. By analyzing interactions in both off- and on-stage spaces, we discuss how the work that students do in constructing identities can be integrated into the linguistic mediation of learning. We do this by offering an interpretation of Rampton’s notion of crossing, emphasizing how this concept promises to link theoretical analysis and practical classroom pedagogy in a socioculturally sensitive way, one that considers the Singaporean multilingual situation and the importance of languages for identity work.

Apprentice Scholarly Writing in a Community Of Practice: An Intraview of an NNES Graduate Student Writing a Research Article
Author: Li, Yongyan
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 1, March 2007 , pp. 55-79(25)
Little is known about what an apprentice scholar in a non-Anglophone context undergoes when writing a research article for publication in English-medium journals. This study highlights “a rich notion of agency” by examining a nonnative-English-speaking graduate student’s engagement with his community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998) as he wrote the first draft of an article in chemistry. The primary data were the student’s process logs, his developing text, and his Bulletin Board System message exchanges and post-hoc interviews. The study illustrates the apprentice scholar’s engagement with the local research community, the laboratory data, his own experience/practice of writing research articles (RAs), and the global specialist research community. His engagement with the global specialist research community includes a critical orientation. The article also points out the value of providing EAP pedagogical support for the critical perspectives that students like Yuan adopt, and it calls for the training of EAP-qualified professionals in non-Anglophone contexts.

The Relationship of Reading Attitudes Between L1 And L2: An Investigation of Adult EFL Learners in Japan
Author: Yamashita, Junko
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 1, March 2007 , pp. 81-105(25)
This study investigated the transfer of reading attitudes from L1 to L2, drawing on the linguistic threshold hypothesis. Participants were Japanese university-level EFL students. Their L1 and L2 reading attitudes were estimated using a Likert scale, and their L2 proficiency was measured using a test. The study found that the students’ L1 and L2 reading attitudes were different. Multiple regression analyses identified significant contributions of L1 reading attitudes in explaining L2 attitudes. The contribution of L2 proficiency was also significant in many cases but very small. Moreover, no evidence was found that the contribution of L1 reading attitude increases at higher levels of L2 proficiency. The study thus demonstrated that reading attitudes transfer from L1 to L2, but as distinct from transfer of reading abilities and strategies, the influence of L2 proficiency is much weaker and the notion of a linguistic threshold does not apply to the transfer of reading attitudes from L1 to L2.

Teachers’ and Learners’ Reactions to a Task-Based EFL Course in Thailand
Authors: McDonough, Kim; Chaikitmongkol, Wanpen
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 1, March 2007 , pp. 107-132(26)
Although many studies have described the L2 learning opportunities created by individual tasks, considerably less research has investigated task-based syllabi and courses (Bruton, 2002; Candlin, 2001; Ellis, 2003; Skehan, 2003). This case study investigated teachers’ and learners’ reactions to a task-based EFL course at a Thai university. A team of Thai EFL teachers created the syllabus, which was pilot tested and revised before being introduced universitywide. For this study, we collected the teachers’ and learners’ impressions about the course over a 12-month period during the pilot testing and revision phases. We identified their reactions using a qualitative analysis of oral and written data elicited through (a) task evaluations, (b) learning notebooks, (c) observations, (d) course evaluations, and (e) interviews. The findings indicate that, despite initial reservations, they believed the course encouraged learners to become more independent and addressed their real world academic needs. Implications for the implementation of task-based language teaching in other EFL contexts are discussed.

Relationship Between English Learning Motivation Types and Self-Identity Changes Among Chinese Students
Authors: Yihong, Gao; Yuan, Zhao; Ying, Cheng; Yan, Zhou
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 41, Number 1, March 2007 , pp. 133-155(23)
This study investigated the relationship between English learning motivation types and self-identity changes among university students in the People’s Republic of China. The sample obtained from a stratified sampling consisted of 2,278 undergraduates from 30 universities in 29 regions. The instrument was a Likert-scale questionnaire which included 30 items of motivation types based on free responses, and 24 items of self-identity changes in six predefined categories: self-confidence, subtractive, additive, productive, split, and zero changes. An exploratory factor analysis revealed seven motivation types: intrinsic interest, immediate achievement, individual development, information medium, going abroad, social responsibility, and learning situation. A canonical correlation test found that motivation types and self-identity changes were correlated through four pairs of canonical variables. Among these, intrinsic interest was correlated with productive and additive changes, individual development with self-confidence change, social responsibility with productive and split changes. Theoretical and pedagogical implications of the results are discussed.

Volume 40, Number 4, December 2006

Literacy and the Processing of Oral Recasts in SLA
Authors: Bigelow, Martha; Delmas, Robert; Hansen, Kit; Tarone, Elaine
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 4, December 2006 , pp. 665-689(25)
In this exploratory study, we examine the role of literacy in the acquisition of second-language (L2) oral skills through a partial replication of Jenefer Philp’s (2003) study of recasts in native speaker (NS)-non-native speaker (NNS) interaction. The principal research question was the following: Is the ability to recall a recast related to the learner’s alphabetic print literacy level? The participants in the study were eight first language (L1) speakers of Somali with limited formal schooling, who were grouped according to scores on L1 and L2 literacy measures. Procedures involved interactive tasks in which participants received and recalled recasts on their grammatically incorrect interrogative sentences. Unlike Philp’s more educated participants, our overall less educated participants showed no significant effects for recast length or, as a group, for number of changes in the recasts. This suggests that findings on the oral L2 processing of more educated L2 learners may not hold for the oral L2 processing of less educated learners. Within our less educated population, the more literate group recalled all recasts significantly better than the less literate group when correct and modified recalls were combined. Literacy level was also significantly related to ability to recall recasts with two or more (2+) changes, with the more literate group doing better than the less literate group. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

Respecifying Display Questions: Interactional Resources for Language Teaching
Author: Lee, Yo-An
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 4, December 2006 , pp. 691-713(23)
Previous research into teachers’ questions has focused on what types of questions are more conducive for developing students’ communicative language use. In this regard, display questions, whose answers the teacher already knows, are considered less effective because they limit opportunities for students to use genuine language use (Long & Sato, 1983). Although the research into teacher questions has been refined in recent years, it is not certain how much we know about how display questions work, especially how they are produced and acted on in the course of classroom interaction by language teachers and students. This article uses a sequential analysis (Koshik, 2002; Markee, 2000; Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974; Schegloff, Koshik, Jacoby, & Olsher, 2002) to examine teachers’ display questions. Sequential analysis considers how classroom talk is the outcome of the contingent coordination of interactional work of common understanding (Moerman & Sacks, 1971/1988). Through analysis of transcribed interaction in an English as a second language (ESL) classroom, this article argues that display questions are central resources whereby language teachers and students organize their lessons and produce language pedagogy.

Language Learners’ Perceptions of Accent
Authors: Scales, Julie; Wennerstrom, Ann; Richard, Dara; Wu, Su Hui
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 4, December 2006 , pp. 715-738(24)
This study analyzed the accent perceptions of a group of 37 English language learners and 10 American undergraduate students. Each subject listened to a one-minute passage read by four speakers with different accents of English: General American, British English, Chinese English, and Mexican English. Participants then attempted to identify the different accents and stated their preferences and opinions about each. They also provided background information, including reasons for studying English and pronunciation goals. Additionally, 11 participants were individually interviewed about the different accents. Although more than half (62%) of the learners stated that their goal was to sound like a native English speaker, only 29% were able to correctly identify the American accent. No strong correlations were found between the ability to identify accents and the amount of time spent in the United States nor time studying English. However, an almost perfect correlation was found between the accent voted easiest to understand and the one that participants preferred. The lack of consistency in identifying accents may reflect an idealized conception of what the native accent aspired to actually sounds like. This finding and the priority placed on listening comprehension suggest a need for more thorough consideration of accent in ESOL programs.

A Cross-Varietal Comparison of Deaccenting and Given Information: Implications for International Intelligibility and Pronounciation Teaching
Author: Low, Ee Ling
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 4, December 2006 , pp. 739-761(23)
Previous research has established that old or given information is often deaccented. The assumption is that unimportant information ought to be weakened and attenuated in speech. Consequently, given information is often deaccented and new information is usually accented in most varieties of English. However, some nonnative varieties, such as Singapore English (SE) appear not to deaccent given information. The present article seeks to investigate the apparent absence of deaccenting in SE by attempting a cross-varietal comparison with British English (BE). The data comprise three main categories of given information: repeated lexical items, anaphoric reference, and sentences that cue deaccenting by inference. Results indicate that SE speakers showed no acoustic evidence of prosodically attenuating given information unlike their BE counterparts and that in the informational domain, SE does not appear to have a comparable prosodic means of signaling new and given information. Implications are given for the international intelligibility of nonnative varieties of English that do not distinguish between new and old information via differences in accent placement. This article will also discuss ramifications for pronunciation teaching.

Speech Rhythm in World Englishes: The Case of Hong Kong
Author: Setter, Jane
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 4, December 2006 , pp. 763-782(20)
This study investigated syllable duration as a measure of speech rhythm in the English spoken by Hong Kong Cantonese speakers. A computer dataset of Hong Kong English speech data amounting to 4,404 syllables was used. Measurements of syllable duration were taken, investigated statistically, and then compared with measurements of 1,847 syllables from an existing corpus of British English speakers. It was found that, although some similarities existed, the Hong Kong English speakers showed smaller differences in the relative syllable duration of tonic, stressed, unstressed, and weakened syllables than the British English speakers. This result is discussed with regard to potential intelligibility problems, features of possible language transfer from Cantonese to English with respect to speech rhythm, and implications for language teaching professionals.

Transfer of Learning From a University Content-Based EAP Course
Author: James, Mark Andrew
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 4, December 2006 , pp. 783-806(24)
This article describes an investigation into the learning outcomes that transferred from a university content-based English for academic purposes (EAP) course to other courses and the factors that influenced that transfer. The study was a longitudinal qualitative case study in one faculty at a large North American university. Data were collected over one academic year through multipronged assessment measures from five first-year students who were participating in a content-based EAP course concurrently with other first-year university courses, as well as from two instructors of the content-based EAP course, 16 instructors of other courses, and one administrator. Data included interview transcripts, participant journals, class observation notes, and samples of course work. Evidence emerged to indicate that learning transfer did occur from the content-based EAP course to the students’ other courses. The learning transfer fell into six broad categories that reflected a range of academic language skills (e.g., listening comprehension skills, writing skills) and other learning outcomes (e.g., study skills). The transfer of these learning outcomes was influenced by eight factors (e.g., requirements for learning transfer in activities in other courses, similarity between the content-based EAP course and other courses). Implications of these findings for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006
Race and TESOL

Race And TESOL: Introduction to Concepts and Theories
Authors: Kubota, Ryuko; Lin, Angel
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006 , pp. 471-493(23)
The field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) brings people from various racialized backgrounds together in teaching, learning, and research. The idea of race, racialization, and racism are inescapable topics that arise in the contact zones created by teaching English worldwide and thus are valid topics to explore in the field. Nonetheless, unlike our peer fields such as anthropology, education, and sociology, the field of TESOL has not sufficiently addressed the idea of race and related concepts. This special topic issue is one of the first attempts in our field to fill the gap. This introductory article will survey key concepts and theories defined and debated in various fields, including race, ethnicity, culture, racialization, racism, critical race theory, and critical White studies, to provide a foundation for future explorations.

Racializing ESOL Teacher Identities in U.S. K-12 Public Schools
Author: Motha, Suhanthie
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006 , pp. 495-518(24)
Through a year-long critical feminist ethnography, this article examines the challenges faced by beginning K-12 ESOL teachers in the United States as they grappled with the significance of their own racial identities in the process of negotiating the inherent racialization of ESOL in their language teaching contexts. I foreground the significance of race in the teaching, language, and identities of four K-12 public school teachers; three White and one Korean American, whose orientations were specifically antiracist. The study examined the implications of teachers’ privileged status as native speakers of standard English, a raced category, within an institutional culture that underscored the supremacy of both Whiteness and native speaker status. The study found the teachers’ practice to be complexified by their attentiveness to their own and their students’ racial identities and by their consciousness of the situatedness of their practice within a broader sociopolitical context. The findings also illustrated the ways in which the teachers negotiated spaces in which they could challenge the silent privilege accorded to Standard American English by problematizing school policies surrounding World English and African American Vernacular English. Implications for theory, practice of teaching English to speakers of other languages, teacher education, and professional development are discussed.

Wrestling With Race: The Implications of Integrative Antiracism Education for Immigrant ESL Youth
Author: Taylor, Lisa
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006 , pp. 519-544(26)
This article presents selected findings from a qualitative practitioner study into the learning experiences of 30 immigrant ESL high school students in a 3-day innovative, Freirean-styled, antidiscrimination leadership program. This case study is grounded in a social identity theoretical framework which assumes that linguistic interactions are not neutral nor is the right to be listened to universally accorded, but that these are linked to identity and structured through social power relations (including racism). In this article I first ask how students came to understand race and racism as they used the integrative antiracism analytical framework of the program to examine examples of discrimination from their personal experience. Second, I ask what implications their analysis had for their identity claims as immigrant ESL learners. The research argues for an understanding of racialized power dynamics as integral to social identity construction through English language learning, especially as they intersect with discourses of national identity and cultural citizenship in the case of immigrant ESL learners. The study suggests that integrative antiracism education can support immigrant language learners’ intersectional and multilevel understandings of discrimination. These expanded understandings of discrimination can also facilitate broader possibilities for social identity claims and ethical visions of Canadianness.

More Than a Game: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Racial Inequality Exercise in Japan
Author: Hammond, Kay
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006 , pp. 545-571(27)
This article reports on a critical discourse analysis of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) students’ written reflections on their experience of a simulated racial inequality exercise at a university in Japan. Initially, the reflections were compared thematically with previously published narratives by people who had experienced racism. The results showed that students engaged well with the simulation and reported many experiences similar to those reported in the published narratives. This result suggests that, according to traditional measures, the exercise was as effective with Japanese students as it has been with white Americans in promoting awareness of racial discrimination. The written statements were reanalyzed, however, from a critical pedagogical perspective drawing on the concept that language shapes, and is shaped by, social practice and inequalities in power. This analysis revealed that the students’ written reflections contained a discourse of diversion from racism. The findings suggest that language teachers need to be more critical when using racial inequality simulation exercises because a focus on the obvious engagement and increased empathy commonly reported may miss the subtle forms of oppression contained within language or society. Pedagogical implications of the analysis are also presented.

Racialized Research Identities in ESL/EFL Research
Authors: Lee, Ena; Simon-Maeda, Andrea
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006 , pp. 573-594(22)
There has been increasing recognition of the need to pursue critical research in the fields of ESL/EFL; however, the role that race plays in our research practices has not been frequently discussed. In-depth explorations of how a racialized identity shapes (and is shaped within) complex interactions between the researcher and researched can uncover the ways that race affects all aspects of our investigations, from collecting data to reporting. This article presents personal narratives of two ESL/EFL researchers, White and Asian, who critically reflect on the implications of racialized identities in conducting their respective studies. Both authors’ accounts share a common theme of tensions around researcher positionality, locatability, (self-)reflexivity, and how best to represent those we are researching and writing about. However, while the first author brings to the fore the complexities of race and racism in ESL/EFL research through her narrative of studying “the other,” the second author attempts to further complexify these issues by highlighting the distinctly unique tensions which arise when a researcher of color attempts to study “her own kind.” The report will thus contribute to an enhanced understanding of the intersections of postcolonial identities, race, and critical research methodologies and ideologies in the TESOL field.

Wrestling With Race: The Implications of Integrative Antiracism Education for Immigrant ESL Youth
Author: Taylor, Lisa
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006 , pp. 519-544(26)
This article presents selected findings from a qualitative practitioner study into the learning experiences of 30 immigrant ESL high school students in a 3-day innovative, Freirean-styled, antidiscrimination leadership program. This case study is grounded in a social identity theoretical framework which assumes that linguistic interactions are not neutral nor is the right to be listened to universally accorded, but that these are linked to identity and structured through social power relations (including racism). In this article I first ask how students came to understand race and racism as they used the integrative antiracism analytical framework of the program to examine examples of discrimination from their personal experience. Second, I ask what implications their analysis had for their identity claims as immigrant ESL learners. The research argues for an understanding of racialized power dynamics as integral to social identity construction through English language learning, especially as they intersect with discourses of national identity and cultural citizenship in the case of immigrant ESL learners. The study suggests that integrative antiracism education can support immigrant language learners’ intersectional and multilevel understandings of discrimination. These expanded understandings of discrimination can also facilitate broader possibilities for social identity claims and ethical visions of Canadianness.

More Than a Game: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Racial Inequality Exercise in Japan
Author: Hammond, Kay
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006 , pp. 545-571(27)
This article reports on a critical discourse analysis of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) students’ written reflections on their experience of a simulated racial inequality exercise at a university in Japan. Initially, the reflections were compared thematically with previously published narratives by people who had experienced racism. The results showed that students engaged well with the simulation and reported many experiences similar to those reported in the published narratives. This result suggests that, according to traditional measures, the exercise was as effective with Japanese students as it has been with white Americans in promoting awareness of racial discrimination. The written statements were reanalyzed, however, from a critical pedagogical perspective drawing on the concept that language shapes, and is shaped by, social practice and inequalities in power. This analysis revealed that the students’ written reflections contained a discourse of diversion from racism. The findings suggest that language teachers need to be more critical when using racial inequality simulation exercises because a focus on the obvious engagement and increased empathy commonly reported may miss the subtle forms of oppression contained within language or society. Pedagogical implications of the analysis are also presented.

Racialized Research Identities in ESL/EFL Research
Authors: Lee, Ena; Simon-Maeda, Andrea
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 3, September 2006 , pp. 573-594(22)
There has been increasing recognition of the need to pursue critical research in the fields of ESL/EFL; however, the role that race plays in our research practices has not been frequently discussed. In-depth explorations of how a racialized identity shapes (and is shaped within) complex interactions between the researcher and researched can uncover the ways that race affects all aspects of our investigations, from collecting data to reporting. This article presents personal narratives of two ESL/EFL researchers, White and Asian, who critically reflect on the implications of racialized identities in conducting their respective studies. Both authors’ accounts share a common theme of tensions around researcher positionality, locatability, (self-)reflexivity, and how best to represent those we are researching and writing about. However, while the first author brings to the fore the complexities of race and racism in ESL/EFL research through her narrative of studying “the other,” the second author attempts to further complexify these issues by highlighting the distinctly unique tensions which arise when a researcher of color attempts to study “her own kind.” The report will thus contribute to an enhanced understanding of the intersections of postcolonial identities, race, and critical research methodologies and ideologies in the TESOL field.

Volume 40, Number 2, June 2006

The Effect of Type of Written Exercise on L2 Vocabulary Retention
Author: Folse, Keith S.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 2, June 2006 , pp. 273-293(21)
The present study used a within-subjects design to examine the effect of the type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. Using input for the meaning and usage of the new words from a specially prepared minidictionary, university intensive English program students (n = 154) practiced target vocabulary in three types of written exercises conditions: one fill-in-the-blank exercise, three fill-in-the-blank exercises, and one original-sentence-writing exercise. An unannounced posttest using a modified version of the vocabulary knowledge scale tested the meaning of the word (L1 translation or L2 synonym) and usage of the word in a student-written sentence. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that mean scores for the three exercise types were significantly different from each other, with words practiced under the three fill-in-the-blank exercises condition retained much better than those practiced under either of the other two exercise conditions. The findings suggest the important feature of a given L2 vocabulary exercise is not depth of word processing but number of word retrievals required. This result has implications for language teachers, curriculum designers, and, in particular, materials writers of traditional workbooks and CALL materials.

From Receptive to Productive: Improving ESL Learners’ Use of Vocabulary in a Postreading Composition Task
Authors: Lee, Siok H.; Muncie, James
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 2, June 2006 , pp. 295-320(26)
Limited research on ESL learners’ use of vocabulary in writing prompted our investigation of vocabulary use in composition by secondary school multi-L1 intermediate ESL learners in Greater Vancouver (n = 48). This study showed that though intermediate learners’ use of 1,000-2,000-word-level vocabulary tended to remain constant, their productive use of higher level target vocabulary improved in postreading composition and was largely maintained in delayed writing. It also showed how, in so doing, their lexical frequency profile (LFP) improved. We attribute this improvement to the teacher’s use of interactive elicitation of vocabulary and a writing frame, and specific instruction to learners to use target vocabulary. Though the exact factor or factors of vocabulary acquisition in this study is unclear, it is obvious that teacher elicitation, explicit explanation, discussion and negotiation, and multimode exposure to target vocabulary are all means of scaffolding and manipulating vocabulary that increased learners’ use of target vocabulary. All these strategies in turn improve LFP in writing. The results suggest that this approach also makes vocabulary learning durable. Increased productive vocabulary acquisition also implies a much larger increase in recognition vocabulary, improving overall classroom language performance. Hinkel (2006, p. 109) calls for integrated and contextualized teaching of multiple language skills, in this case, reading, writing, and vocabulary instruction.

Native Speakers of Arabic and ESL Texts: Evidence for the Transfer of Written Word Identification Processes
Author: Hayes-Harb, Rachel
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 2, June 2006 , pp. 321-339(19)
English as a second language (ESL) teachers have long noted that native speakers of Arabic exhibit exceptional difficulty with English reading comprehension (e.g., Thompson-Panos & Thomas-Ruzic, 1983). Most existing work in this area has looked to higher level aspects of reading such as familiarity with discourse structure and cultural knowledge to explain native Arabic speakers’ ESL reading difficulties (Abu Rabia, 1996). However, higher level processes often depend on lower level processes, such as letter and word identification, and deficient lower level processing can inhibit reading comprehension (Koda, 1990). Given important differences in the written representation of vowel information in English and Arabic writing, it was hypothesized that the English reading comprehension difficulties experienced by Arabic speakers might also reflect nontarget-like lower level processing of letters and words. Two experiments compare the reading processes of native Arabic speakers to the reading processes of native English speakers and non-Arabic ESL learners and provide some evidence that native Arabic speakers are less aware of vowel letters in English texts than either control group. This differential awareness of vowel letters may contribute to native Arabic speakers’ ESL reading comprehension difficulties. The implications of this research for ESL pedagogy are discussed.

Effects of Input Elaboration on Vocabulary Acquisition Through Reading by Korean Learners of English as a Foreign Language
Author: Kim, Youngkyu
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 2, June 2006 , pp. 341-373(33)
This article investigates whether (a) lexical elaboration (LE), typographical enhancement (TE), or a combination, and (b) explicit or implicit LE affect 297 Korean learners’ acquisition of English vocabulary. The learners were asked to read one of six versions of an experimental text that contained 26 target words. The study adopted a 2 × 3 MANOVA design with TE and LE as two independent variables and form- and meaning-recognition vocabulary posttests as two dependent variables. The TE had two levels, enhanced and unenhanced, and the LE had three levels, explicit, implicit, and unelaborated. The results were (a) LE alone did not aid form recognition of vocabulary, (b) explicit LE alone aided meaning recognition of vocabulary, (c) TE alone did not aid form and meaning recognition of vocabulary, (d) LE and TE combined did not aid form recognition of vocabulary, (e) both explicit and implicit LE aided meaning recognition of vocabulary, (f) explicit and implicit LE did not differ in their effect on form and meaning recognition of vocabulary, and (g) whether a text was further enhanced in addition to either explicit or implicit LE did not seem to affect the acquisition of the previously unknown words’ forms or meanings.

The Effects of Listening Support on the Listening Performance of EFL Learners
Authors: Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang; Read, John
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 2, June 2006 , pp. 375-397(23)
Listening comprehension is a difficult skill for foreign language learners to develop and for their teachers to assess. In designing suitable listening tests, teachers can provide various forms of support to reduce the demands of the task for the test takers. This study investigated the effects of four types of listening support: previewing the test questions, repetition of the input, providing background knowledge about the topic, and vocabulary instruction. The research involved a classroom-based experiment with 160 students enrolled in a required English listening course at a college in Taiwan. The results showed that the most effective type of support overall was providing information about the topic, followed by repetition of the input. The learners’ level of listening proficiency had a significant interaction effect, particularly in the case of question preview. Vocabulary instruction was the least useful form of support, regardless of proficiency level. The findings are generally consistent with the results of the small number of previous studies in this area but there is certainly scope for further investigation.

The Development of the English Developmental Contrastive Spelling Test: A Tool for Investigating Spanish Influence on English Spelling Development
Authors: Howard, Elizabeth R.; Arteagoitia, Igone; Louguit, Mohammed; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry M.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 2, June 2006 , pp. 399-420(22)
This article describes the development of an English spelling measure designed to assess the progress made by Spanish-English bilingual children from Grade 2 to Grade 5. Different stages of developing the measure are described, such as selecting the focus features, the prepilot and pilot phases, and the operational version. Two underlying attributes characterize the spelling measure described in this article. First, it is developmental, meaning that it contains a wide variety of features and items that differ according to spelling difficulty, such that the assessment is able to measure the growth of English spelling ability over the full sequence of the upper elementary grades. Second, it is contrastive; that is, it was designed to detect some areas of potential cross-linguistic influence from Spanish to English. The combination of these two characteristics makes this spelling measure a unique tool for assessing the development of spelling ability by Spanish-English bilingual children.

Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006

TESOL at Forty: What Are the Issues?
Author: Canagarajah, A. Suresh
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 9-34(26)
This overview delineates the direction of pedagogical developments since the 25th anniversary issue of TESOL Quarterly. Three tendencies characterize our professional practice: (a) a continuation along the earlier lines of progression (i.e., in opening up the classroom to learning opportunities, integrating skills, and teaching for specific purposes); (b) a radical reorientation along new paradigms (i.e., in understanding motivation and acquisition in terms of social participation and identity construction; in developing methods from the ground up, based on generative heuristics; in widening testing to include formative assessment; in accommodating subjective knowledge and experience in teacher expertise); (c) unresolved debates and questions about the direction in certain domains (i.e., when and how to teach grammar; whether to adopt cognitivist or social orientations in SLA, testing, and teacher education). Our professional knowledge gets further muddled by the new movements of globalization, digital communication, and World Englishes, which pose fresh questions that are yet to be addressed. However, grappling with these concerns has engendered realizations on the need for local situatedness, global inclusiveness, and disciplinary collaboration that are of more lasting value.

Cognitive and Sociocultural Perspectives: Two Parallel SLA Worlds?
Authors: Zuengler, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth R.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 35-58(24)
Looking back at the past 15 years in the field of second language acquisition (SLA), the authors select and discuss several important developments. One is the impact of various sociocultural perspectives such as Vygotskian sociocultural theory, language socialization, learning as changing participation in situated practices, Bakhtin and the dialogic perspective, and critical theory. Related to the arrival of these perspectives, the SLA field has also witnessed debates concerning understandings of learning and the construction of theory. The debate discussed in this article involves conflicting ontologies. We argue that the traditional positivist paradigm is no longer the only prominent paradigm in the field: Relativism has become an alternative paradigm. Tensions, debates, and a growing diversity of theories are healthy and stimulating for a field like SLA.

TESOL Methods: Changing Tracks, Challenging Trends
Author: Kumaravadivelu, B.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 59-81(23)
This article traces the major trends in TESOL methods in the past 15 years. It focuses on the TESOL profession’s evolving perspectives on language teaching methods in terms of three perceptible shifts: (a) from communicative language teaching to task-based language teaching, (b) from method-based pedagogy to postmethod pedagogy, and (c) from systemic discovery to critical discourse. It is evident that during this transitional period, the profession has witnessed a heightened awareness about communicative and task-based language teaching, about the limitations of the concept of method, about possible postmethod pedagogies that seek to address some of the limitations of method, about the complexity of teacher beliefs that inform the practice of everyday teaching, and about the vitality of the macrostructures—social, cultural, political, and historical—that shape the microstructures of the language classroom. This article deals briefly with the changes and challenges the trend-setting transition seems to be bringing about in the profession’s collective thought and action.

Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective
Author: Ellis, Rod
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 83-107(25)
The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements Celce-Murcia’s (1991) article on grammar teaching in the 25th anniversary issue of TESOL Quarterly, which considered the role of grammar in a communicative curriculum and drew predominantly on a linguistic theory of grammar. These eight questions address whether grammar should be taught and if so what grammar, when, and how. Although SLA does not afford definitive solutions to these questions, it serves the valuable purpose of problematising this aspect of language pedagogy. This article concludes with a statement of my own beliefs about grammar teaching, grounded in my own understanding of SLA.

Current Perspectives on Teaching the Four Skills
Author: Hinkel, Eli
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 109-131(23)
This article presents an overview of recent developments in second language (L2) teaching and highlights the trends that began in the 1990s and the 2000s and are likely to continue to affect instruction in L2 skills at least in the immediate future. Also highlighted are recent developments in instruction as they pertain specifically to the teaching of L2 speaking, listening, reading, and writing. In the past 15 years or so, several crucial factors have combined to affect current perspectives on the teaching of English worldwide: (a) the decline of methods, (b) a growing emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down skills, (c) the creation of new knowledge about English, and (d) integrated and contextualized teaching of multiple language skills. In part because of its comparatively short history as a discipline, TESOL has been and continues to be a dynamic field, one in which new venues and perspectives are still unfolding. The growth of new knowledge about the how and the what of L2 teaching and learning is certain to continue and will probably remain the hallmark of TESOL’s disciplinary maturation.

English for Specific Purposes: Teaching to Perceived Needs and Imagined Futures in Worlds of Work, Study, and Everyday Life
Author: Belcher, Diane D.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 133-156(24)
This overview of the current state of English for specific purposes (ESP) begins by surveying ongoing debates on key topics: needs assessment and its goals, specificity in instructional methods, and the role of subject knowledge in instructor expertise. Two strands of current theory and research are next surveyed, namely, genre theory and corpus-enhanced genre studies, and critical pedagogy and ethnographies, followed by examples of research and theory-informed pedagogical strategies for literacy and spoken discourse. Topics in need of further inquiry are suggested.

Current Perspectives on Teaching World Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca
Author: Jenkins, Jennifer
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 157-181(25)
The purpose of this article is to explore recent research into World Englishes (henceforth WEs) and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), focusing on its implications for TESOL, and the extent to which it is being taken into account by English language teachers, linguists, and second language acquisition researchers. After a brief introduction comparing the current situation with that of 15 years ago, I look more closely at definitions of WEs and ELF. Then follows an overview of relevant developments in WEs and ELF research during the past 15 years, along with a more detailed discussion of some key research projects and any controversies they have aroused. I then address the implications of WEs/ELF research for TESOL vis-à-vis English language standards and standard English, and the longstanding native versus nonnative teacher debate. Finally, I assess the consensus on WEs and ELF that is emerging both among researchers and between researchers and language teaching professionals. The article concludes by raising a number of questions that remain to be investigated in future research.

Perspectives on Technology in Learning and Teaching Languages
Author: Kern, Richard
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 183-210(28)
Rapid evolution of communication technologies has changed language pedagogy and language use, enabling new forms of discourse, new forms of authorship, and new ways to create and participate in communities. The first section of this article identifies and discusses four key issues arising from the recent technology-related literature (the status of CALL, its theoretical grounding, its cultural embeddedness, and its effectiveness). The second section synthesizes research findings from three current areas of research: computer-mediated communication, electronic literacies, and telecollaboration. The third section develops implications for teaching and research, highlighting the importance of the teacher, new understandings of language and communication, critical awareness of the relationships among technology, language, culture, and society, and new trends in research methods.

Expanding Horizons and Unresolved Conundrums: Language Testing and Assessment
Authors: Leung, Constant; Lewkowicz, Jo
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 211-234(24)
Since the last TESOL Quarterly commemorative issue 15 years ago, there have been too many important developments in language testing and assessment for all of them to be discussed in a single article. Therefore, this article focuses on issues that we believe are integrally linked to pedagogic and curriculum concerns of English language teaching. Although the discussion has been organized into two main sections, the first dealing with issues relating to formal tests and the second to broader concerns of assessment, we highlight the common themes and concerns running through both sections in the belief that testing and assessment are two sides of the same educational coin. In the first section we address the issue of test authenticity, which underscores much of language testing enquiry. We consider developments in the field’s understanding of this notion and suggest that relating test authenticity to target language use may be necessary but insufficient without considering authenticity as it is operationalised in the classroom. In the second section, acknowledging current concerns with standardized psychometric testing, we broaden the discussion to issues of validity, ethics, and alternative assessment. We first consider the intellectual climate in which the debates on such issues has developed and the relevance of these deliberations to pedagogy and curriculum. We then discuss some of the key issues in current classroom-based teacher assessment that are related to and can inform student second language competence and teacher professional knowledge and skills. We end by projecting how the current globalization of English may affect the understanding of authenticity and how this understanding is likely to affect testing and assessment practices worldwide.

The Sociocultural Turn and Its Challenges for Second Language Teacher Education
Author: Johnson, Karen E.
Source: TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, March 2006 , pp. 235-257(23)
Although the overall mission of second language (L2) teacher education has remained relatively constant, that is, to prepare L2 teachers to do the work of this profession, the field’s understanding of that work—of who teaches English, who learns English and why, of the sociopolitical and socioeconomic contexts in which English is taught, and of the varieties of English that are being taught and used around the world—has changed dramatically over the past 40 years. This article examines the epistemological underpinnings of a more general sociocultural turn in the human sciences and the impact that this turn has had on the field’s understanding of how L2 teachers learn to do their work. Four interrelated challenges that have come to the forefront as a result of this turn are discussed: (a) theory/practice versus praxis, (b) the legitimacy of teachers’ ways of knowing, (c) redrawing the boundaries of professional development, and (d) “located” L2 teacher education. In addressing these challenges, the intellectual tools of inquiry are positioned as critical if L2 teacher education is to sustain a teaching force of transformative intellectuals who can navigate their professional worlds in ways that enable them to create educationally sound, contextually appropriate, and socially equitable learning opportunities for the students they teach.

3 Comments »

  1. Very helpful. Thanks!

    Comment by Willie — July 21, 2011 @ 7:01 am

  2. [...] 8.TESOL Quarterly Articles (2006-Present) « English as a Foreign … Jun 15, 2010 … Author: Liu, Dilin … This study adopted a mixed-methods cross-sectional approach to … used approaches to ESL writing pedagogy and grammar instruction are … by researchers as a critical component of reading comprehension, not … an innovative experimental approach, the duplicated answer sheets … https://tesolefl.wordpress.com/2010/06/15/tesol-quarterly-articles-2006-present/ [...]

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